The Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI)
and Related Instruments

Please note that a downloadable permission form to use the MRNI-SF or any other instrument is available on this website, and that reprints of refereed journal articles listed below may be requested. Please use the message form on this site for your reprint requests.


DO YOU THINK MEN SHOULD BE MACHO, OR DO YOU LEAN MORE TO THE METROSEXUAL?

Find out where you stand. Take the Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF) and get interpretations of your scores by clicking HERE.


NEW INSTRUMENT:

Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF)

Levant, R. F., Hall, R. J., & Rankin. T. J. (2012). Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF): Development, Confirmatory Factor Analytic Investigation of Structure, and Measurement Invariance across Gender. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 228-238.

ABSTRACT: The current study reports the development of the 21-item Male Role Norms Inventory-Short Form (MRNI-SF). Confirmatory factor analysis) indicated that the best-fitting “bi-factor” model incorporated the hypothesized seven-factor structure while explicitly modeling an additional, general traditional masculinity ideology factor. The bi-factor model was assessed for measurement invariance across gender groups, with findings of full configural invariance and partial metric invariance, such that factor loadings were equivalent across the gender groups for the seven specific factors, but not for the general traditional masculinity ideology factor. Theoretical explanations for this latter result include the potential that men’s sense of self or identity may be engaged when responding to questions asking to what extent they agree or disagree with normative statements about their behavior, a possibility that could be investigated in future research by examining the associations of the general and specific factors with measures of masculine identity. Additional exploratory invariance analyses demonstrated latent mean differences between men and women on four of the eight factors, and equivocal results for invariance of item intercepts, item uniquenesses, and factor variances-covariances.

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Male Role Norms Inventory (MRNI)

Articles:

Levant, R., Hirsch, L., Celentano, E., Cozza, T., Hill, S., MacEachern, M., Marty, N., & Schnedeker, J. (1992). The male role: An investigation of contemporary norms. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 14, 325-337.

Levant, R., Wu., R., & Fischer, J. (1996). Masculinity ideology: A comparison between U. S. and Chinese young men and women. Journal of Gender, Culture and Health, 1, 207-220.

Levant, R., & Majors, R. (1997). An investigation into variations in the construction of the male gender role among young African-American and European-American women and men. Journal of Gender, Culture and Health, 2, 33-43.

Levant, R., Majors, R., & Kelley, M. (1998). Masculinity ideology among young African-American and European-American women and men in different regions of the United States. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 4, 227-236.

Wu, R., Levant, R. F., Sellers, A. (2001) The influence of sex and social development on masculinity ideology of Chinese undergraduate students. Psychological Science (published by the Chinese Psychological Society), 24, 365-366.

Levant, R. F., Cuthbert, A. C., Richmond, K., Sellers, A., Matveev, A., Matina, O., Soklovsky, M. (2003). Masculinity ideology among Russian and U.S. young men and women and its relationship to unhealthy lifestyle habits among young Russian men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 26-36.

Levant, R.F., Richmond, K, Majors, R. G., Inclan, J. E., Rosello, J. M., Rowan, G., & Sellers, A. (2003). A multicultural investigation of masculinity ideology and alexithymia. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 91-99.

Berger, J.M., Levant, R.F., McMillan, K.K., Kelleher, W., & Sellers, A. (2005). Impact of gender role conflict, traditional masculinity ideology, alexithymia, and age on men’s attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 6, 73-78.

Levant, R. F., & Richmond., K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 130-146.

Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., & Richmond., K. (2007). A review of research on masculinity ideologies using the Male Role Norms Inventory. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 130-146.

Levant, R. F., Smalley, K. B., Aupont, M., House, A., Richmond, K., &. Noronha, D. (2007). Initial validation of the Male Role Norms Inventory- Revised. Journal of Men’s Studies, 15, 85-100.

Levant, R. F., Rankin, T. J., Williams, C., Hasan, N. T., Smalley, K. B. (2010) Evaluation of the factor structure and construct validity of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Revised (MRNI-R). Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 25-37.

Wimer, D. J. & Levant, R. F. (2011). The relationship of masculinity and help-seeking style with the academic help-seeking behavior of college men. Journal of Men’s Studies, 19, 256-274.

Thomas, K . & Levant, R F. (2011). Does the endorsement of traditional masculinity ideology moderate the relationship between exposure to violent video games and aggression Journal of Men’s Studies, 20, 47-56.

Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A and MRNI-A-r)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Graef, S. T., Smalley, K. B., Williams, C., & McMillan, N. (2008). The evaluation of the Male Role Norms Inventory-Adolescent (MRNI-A). Thymos: Journal of Boyhood Studies, 2, 46-59

Shepard, S. J., Nicpon, M. F, Haley, J. T., Lind, M., & Liu, W. M.(2011). Masculine norms, school attitudes, and psychosocial adjustment among gifted boys. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 12, 181-187.

Levant, R. F., Rogers, B. K., Cruickshank, B., Kurtz, B. A., Rankin, T. J., Williams, C. M., Colbow, A, (2012). Exploratory factor analysis and construct validity of the Male Role Norms InventoryAdolescent-revised (MRNI-A-r). Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 13, 354-366.

Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Richmond, K., Cook, S, House, A., & Aupont, M. (2007). The Femininity Ideology Scale: Factor structure, reliability, validity, and social contextual variation. Sex Roles, 57, 373-383.

Richmond, K., Levant, R. F., Cook, S., & Smalley, K. B. (2015) Confirmatory factor analysis of the Femininity Ideology Scale (FIS), and its relationship to anxiety and feminine gender role stress. Women and Health (in press).

Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20)

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Articles:

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D.J, Williams, C. M. (2011). An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20) and its relationships to masculinity and attitudes towards seeking psychological help among college men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 26-41.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). Masculinity constructs as protective buffers and risk factors for men’s health. American Journal of Men’s Health,110-120.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). The relationship between conformity to masculine norms and men’s health behaviors: Testing a multiple mediator model. International Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 110-120.

Women’s Non-traditional Sexuality Questionnaire (WNSQ)

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Article:

Levant, R. F., Rankin, T. J., Hall, R. J., Smalley, K. B., David, K., Williams, C. (2011). The measurement of nontraditional sexuality in women. Archives of Sexual Behavior. 41,283-295. doi:10.1007/s10508-011-9793-6

Articles on Men’s Help-Seeking and Mental and Physical Health

Levant, R. F., Cuthbert, A. C., Richmond, K., Sellers, A., Matveev, A., Matina, O., Soklovsky, M. (2003). Masculinity ideology among Russian and U.S. young men and women and its relationship to unhealthy lifestyle habits among young Russian men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 4, 26-36.

Berger, J.M., Levant, R.F., McMillan, K.K., Kelleher, W., & Sellers, A. (2005). Impact of gender role conflict, traditional masculinity ideology, alexithymia, and age on men’s attitudes toward psychological help seeking. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 6, 73-78.

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D. J., Williams, C., Smalley, K. B., & Noronha, D. (2009). The Relationships between Masculinity Variables, Health Risk Behaviors and Attitudes toward Seeking Psychological Help. International Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 3-21.

Levant, R. F., Wimer, D.J, Williams, C. M. (2011). An evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Health Behavior Inventory-20 (HBI-20) and its relationships to masculinity and attitudes towards seeking psychological help among college men. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 11, 26-41.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). Masculinity constructs as protective buffers and risk factors for men’s health. American Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 110-120.

Levant, R. F. & Wimer, D. J. (2014). The relationship between conformity to masculine norms and men’s health behaviors: Testing a multiple mediator model. International Journal of Men’s Health, 13, 22-41.

Wimer, D. J., & Levant, R. F. (2013). Energy drink use and its relationship to masculinity constructs among college men. American Journal of Men’s Health, 7, 317-328.

Levant, R. F., Stefanov, D.G., Rankin, T. J., Halter, M. J., Williams, C. M., & Mellinger, C. (2013). Moderated path analysis of the relationships between masculinity and men’s attitudes toward seeking psychological help. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60, 392-400.

Levant, R. F., Parent, M. C., McCurdy, E. R, & Bradstreet, T. C. (2014). Moderated Mediation and Health Outcomes of the Relationships between Masculinity Ideology, Outcome Expectations, and Energy Drink Use. (submitted to refereed journal).